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Prospective cohort studies contribute importantly to understanding the role of lifestyle, genetic, and other factors in chronic disease etiology.The American Cancer Society (ACS) recruited a new prospective cohort study, Cancer Prevention Study 3 (CPS-3), between 2006 and 2013 from 35 states and Puerto Rico. Enrollment took place primarily at ACS community events and at community enrollment “drives.” At enrollment sites, participants completed a brief survey that included an informed consent, identifying information necessary for follow-up, and key exposure information. They also provided a waist measure and a nonfasting blood sample. Most participants also completed a more comprehensive baseline survey at home that included extensive medical, lifestyle, and other information. Participants will be followed for incident cancers through linkage with state cancer registries and for cause-specific mortality through linkage with the National Death Index.In total, 303,682 participants were enrolled. Of these, 254,650 completed the baseline survey and are considered “fully” enrolled; they will be sent repeat surveys periodically for at least the next 20 years to update exposure information. The remaining participants (n = 49,032) will not be asked to update exposure information but will be followed for outcomes. Twenty-three percent of participants were men, 17.3% reported a race or ethnicity other than “white,” and the median age at enrollment was 47 years.CPS-3 will be a valuable resource for studies of cancer and other outcomes because of its size; its diversity with respect to age, ethnicity, and geography; and the availability of blood samples and detailed questionnaire information collected over time.The American Cancer Society has recruited a new, prospective cohort study, Cancer Prevention Study 3, of 303,682 adult men and women between 2006 and 2013 from 35 states and Puerto Rico. Participants provided a blood sample and extensive epidemiologic data at enrollment and will be followed for incident cancers and for cause-specific mortality for at least the next 20 years.