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The Food and Drug Administration formally established the Oncology Center of Excellence (OCE) in January 2017, as authorized by the 21st Century Cures Act, to expedite the development and review of certain drugs, biologics, and devices for the treatment of cancer. In its first year, the OCE conducted the clinical reviews for several products, including the first 2 chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapies approved for the treatment of advanced hematologic malignancies and an in vitro diagnostic next-generation sequencing panel, FoundationOne CDx. The OCE also worked with professional societies and patient advocates on efforts to modernize clinical trial eligibility criteria, resulting in recommendations regarding minimal age, brain metastases, organ dysfunction, and human immunodeficiency virus coinfection. Altogether in 2017, the Food and Drug Administration approved 16 new drug and biologic applications, 30 supplemental drug and biologic applications, and 2 biosimilar applications in oncology.