Perspectives on burnout and empowerment among hemodialysis nurses and the current burnout intervention trends: A literature review

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Burnout is emerging among North American hemodialysis (HD) nurses (RNs), and can have detrimental effects on the RNs' health and well-being, and jeopardize the quality of care and patient safety. It is, therefore, essential to better understand and address this issue. Empowerment is at present recognized in some nursing specialties as a useful strategy for reducing the risk of burnout. This review includes 35 relevant articles and is meant to provide an understanding of HD RNs' burnout, their perceptions of empowerment, and the interventions that are effective in reducing the occurrence of burnout. Internationally, a majority of HD RNs manifested a moderate risk of burnout, whereas 33%-41% of North American HD RNs reported a higher burnout risk (Flynn, Thomas-Hawkins, & Clarke, 2009;Harwood, Ridley, Wilson, & Laschinger, 2010a;O'Brien, 2011). Findings revealed that burnout reduction strategies combining individual and organizational approaches had potentially longer lasting positive effects (Awa, Plaumann, & Walter, 2010). Promoting empowerment strategies for HD RNs appears promising in addressing the challenges RNs encounter in their practice and reducing burnout.

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