Frustration, exploration, and learning

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D. E. Berlyne's (1960) principle that uncertainty leads to exploration is extended to situations involving frustrative nonreward. Both empirical evidence and logical analysis support the frustration-exploration hypothesis, which posits that uncertain frustration leads to exploration, whose primary function is to broaden the scope of response selection. The facilitative effects of frustration-motivated exploration in learning are documented, and their implications for education (e.g., too little experience of frustration and failure is not as effective as teaching children how to cope successfully with it) are discussed. (French summary) (67 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved)

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