The aim of the present research was to assess the differences in blood platelet and plasma proteome profiles of patients with uremia in comparison with healthy participants. It was found that 23 peptides in the platelet proteome profiles of hemodialyzed patients and only 6 peptides in nondialyzed patients were upregulated. On the other hand, 18 peptides with reduced expression in nondialyzed patients and only 1 peptide in hemodialyzed patients were found. For serum, only 6 upregulated peptides in patients undergoing hemodialysis and 15 peptides in nondialyzed patients were found, most of these were about 10 kDa. A decrease in serum peptide expression was not observed. In conclusion, it should be noted that the process of hemodialysis modifies the platelet proteome to a greater extent than uremia alone, however the sera of nondialyzed patients have much larger amounts of low-molecular-weight peptides than those of hemodialyzed patients.