Deeper mechanistic understanding of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), a leading cause of total cancer-related deaths, may facilitate the establishment of more effective therapeutic strategies. In this study, pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG1) expression was associated with lymph node and distant metastasis in patients with NSCLC and was correlated with patient survival. Reduction of PTTG1 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) inhibits the migration and invasion of NSCLC cells by mediating matrix metalloproteinases expression. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to report that PTTG1 promotes epidermal growth factor (EGF) induced the phosphorylation of LIN-11, Isl1 and MEC-3 protein domain kinase and cofilin, a critical step in cofilin recycling and actin polymerization. Additionally, EGF-induced Akt phosphorylation was suppressed through knockdown of PTTG1. Interestingly, miR-186 can modulate PTTG1 protein expression. As observed from the animal experiment in this study, knockdown of PTTG1 through siRNA and overexpression of miR-186 inhibited invasive activity of NSCLC cells toward the SCID mice lung. In summary, our in vitro and in vivo results indicate that PTTG1 modulated by miR-186 has an important function in NSCLC invasion/metastasis. This study identified both PTTG1 and miR-186 as potential anti-invasion targets for therapeutic intervention in NSCLC.