Dietary iron intake and variation in iron homeostasis genes may affect colorectal neoplasia risk. We conducted two nested case–control studies within the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial: one of advanced colorectal adenoma (1205 cases; 1387 controls) and one of colorectal cancer (370 cases; 401 controls). Iron intake was estimated with a food frequency questionnaire and genotyping was performed for 21 genes. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for colorectal neoplasia risk within quartiles of intake. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) modified the association between iron intake and the risk of adenoma or cancer. Dietary iron was positively associated with colorectal adenoma among three SNPs ofHEPHL1, including carriers of the AA genotype at rs7946162 (ORQ4–Q1 = 2.22, 95% CI 1.15–4.27,Ptrend = 0.03;Pinteraction = 0.10), the TT genotype at rs2460063 (ORQ4–Q1 = 2.39, 95% CI 1.26–4.54,Ptrend = 0.02;Pinteraction = 0.04) and the GG genotype at rs7127348 (ORQ4–Q1 = 2.40, 95% CI 1.23–4.67,Ptrend = 0.02;Pinteraction = 0.09). Heme iron was positively associated with colorectal cancer among those with GG genotypes forACO1rs10970985 (ORQ4–Q1 = 2.45, 95% CI 3.40–8.06,Ptrend = 0.004;Pinteraction = 0.05). However, none of the associations were statistically significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Future studies should target the specific genes and SNPs for which the association was significant prior to multiple comparison correction.