Current incidence and clinical outcomes of bivalirudin administration among patients undergoing primary coronary intervention for stent thrombosis elevation acute myocardial infarction

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Multiple antithrombotic options are available for patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary interventions for stent thrombosis elevation acute myocardial infarction. Current utilization and outcomes of antithrombotic agents for primary percutaneous coronary intervention, including bivalirudin, have not been defined.


A total of 84 471 patients were reported from 439 hospitals to the National Registry of Myocardial Infarction-5 registry between April 2004 and June 2005. Consecutive patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary interventions for stent thrombosis elevation acute myocardial infarction (n=7629 at 231 United States percutaneous coronary intervention capable hospitals) comprised the population analyzed. We examined antithrombotic strategies and the occurrence of adverse cardiac events stratified according to the use of bivalirudin. Logistic regression was performed to control for differences between three antithrombotic therapy treatment groups.


Glycoprotein IIbIIIa inhibitors were used nearly ubiquitously, but given prior to percutaneous coronary interventions in only 36% of patients. Less than one-quarter of patients received clopidogrel prior to percutaneous coronary interventions. Bivalirudin was used in 4.2% of patients (n=320) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention during this time period. Patients treated with bivalirudin were more likely to be elderly (P=0.03), have a history of prior bleeding (P=0.003) and stroke (P=0.06). Major adverse events and bleeding complications were similar in antithrombotic therapy groups (bleeding: bivalirudin 7.8% versus nonbivalirudin 7.5%, P=0.85). The adjusted outcomes were also similar after confining the analysis to bivalirudin patients who had not received any glycoprotein IIbIIIa inhibitors (n=143).


Contemporary primary percutaneous coronary intervention includes mainly clopidogrel and eptifibatide initiated at the time of percutaneous coronary intervention. Patients who received bivalirudin were at higher risk and had similar adjusted outcomes as patients in the nonbivalirudin group. Optimization of primary percutaneous coronary intervention pharmacology requires future randomized clinical trials, examining the timing and type of adjunctive antithrombotic agents.

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