Coronary artery-positive remodeling in current smokers

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This study aims to evaluate the association of the coronary artery-positive remodeling (CAPR) observed on cardiac computed tomography angiography (CCTA) with cigarette smoking.

Patients and methods

This retrospective case–control study enrolled 178 consecutive patients with CAPR plaque (case group) and 180 consecutive patients with coronary artery plaque, but no positive remodeling (control group). CAPR was evaluated in CCTA images and defined as at least 10% larger vessel diameter at the plaque site compared with a normal reference segment.


The average age of this population was 61.8±11.5 years (30.4% women). In the case group, the prevalences of current smokers, former smokers, and nonsmokers were 15.7, 26.4, and 57.9%, respectively. In the control group, the prevalences were 6.1, 20.6, and 73.3%, respectively, which were significantly different from the control group (P=0.002 for all). In a subanalysis of the CAPR location in the CAPR group, CAPR was more prevalent in the proximal than the distal segments of the major coronary arteries. Most of the patients in the case group had only one segment involvement with CAPR (71.35%). Logistic regression analyses showed that a history of current smoking has a significant correlation with CAPR in both unadjusted and adjusted models after controlling for risk factors. Current smokers have a 3.5-fold higher risk of having CAPR compared with nonsmokers (P<0.01).


There is a significant independent association between a history of cigarette smoking and CAPR evaluated by CCTA. Current cigarette smokers have a 3.5 times higher risk of having CAPR.

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