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We investigated the prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in persons with and without obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Fifty-three persons had a nocturnal polysomnogram to diagnose OSA and 2-dimensional echocardiograms to measure left ventricular mass. OSA was considered mild if the respiratory disturbance index (RDI) was 5 to 15, moderate if the RDI was 15 to 30, and severe if the RDI was >30. LVH was diagnosed if the left ventricular mass index was >110 g/m2 in women and >134 g/m2 in men. LVH was present in 21 of 27 persons (78%) with moderate or severe OSA, in 6 of 13 persons (46%) with mild OSA, and in 3 of 13 persons (23%) with no OSA (P < 0.001 comparing moderate or severe OSA with no OSA and P < 0.05 comparing moderate or severe OSA with mild OSA). OSA was a significant independent predictor of LVH after controlling the confounding effects of hypertension with an odds ratio of 3.579 (95% confidence interval, 1.589–8.058).