Cardioprotection in the Modern Era of Cancer Chemotherapy

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The current arsenal of cancer chemotherapy is broad and rapidly expanding and includes conventional cytotoxic agents and targeted and immune-based therapies. As cancer survival rates have improved, the acute and latent cardiotoxicities of chemotherapy have emerged as important contributors to morbidity and mortality in cancer survivors. All chemotherapeutic agents have the potential for cardiac complications, with manifestations ranging from subclinical left ventricular dysfunction and asymptomatic QT prolongation, to congestive heart failure, myocardial ischemia, myocarditis, arrhythmia, and sudden cardiac death. Efforts are ongoing to identify patients at high risk of cardiac complications and to develop evidence-based approaches to cardioprotection. In this review, we describe antitumor agents commonly associated with cardiotoxicity, with a focus on risk assessment, surveillance strategies, and pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions aimed at preventing and mitigating chemotherapy-induced myocardial dysfunction.

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