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As the most common cardiac arrhythmia, atrial fibrillation has been the subject of investigation for the past few decades. During this time, surgical treatment for patients with this condition has evolved significantly. After the history of surgical therapy for atrial fibrillation is discussed, this article examines current surgical therapeutic options, including the most recent progress on energy sources, concomitant surgical ablation, and minimally invasive surgical ablation for lone atrial fibrillation. The article also highlights the hybrid approaches that are currently being researched.