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Based on our experience with the prospective follow-up study in a group of patients (n = 21) with congestive heart failure (CHF) (NYHA III n = 10, NYHA IV n = 11) and left ventricular ejection fraction below 30%, who were referred to our ordinary care unit by their family physicians after an initial work-up, we investigated the impact of a special treatment program in 25 patients with similar CHF despite therapy (60 ± 4 years, NYHA III n = 11, NYHA IV n = 14, LVEF < 30%, 17 ± 3%). The program focused on three issues: (1) individualized medical therapy of CHF, (2) antiarrhythmic treatment and close follow-up visits, and (3) continuous education of patients and physicians in order to improve treatment compliance and the early management of complications. Medical treatment was based on diuretic and vasodilator therapy in all the patients, while positive inotropic substances including digoxin were given selectively. Vasodilator treatment was started with prazosin in 22 patients and with ACE inhibitors in three patients with low serum sodium. Fifty-five percent of the patients on prazosin had to be changed over to ACE inhibitors. Amiodarone was used as first line drug to treat symptomatic ventricular tachycardia in two patients and two survivors of ventricular fibrillation. Six of the 11 patients remained free of symptoms from malignant ventricular arrhythmias. The 1-year-survival of all the patients in the special care program was 92% and the 2-year-survival was 83% which compare favorably with previously reported survival rates in similar patient groups.