Inhibition of Nitrosylation, Nitration, Lymphocyte Proliferation, and Gene Expression in Acute and Delayed Cardiac Allograft Rejection by an Orally Active Dithiocarbamate


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Abstract

Dithiocarbamate derivatives sequester metals such as iron and may have benefits in inflammatory diseases. We examined the actions of a new dithiocarbamate-based oral formulation, NOX-700, on protein modification by nitric oxide (NO), gene expression, and lymphocyte proliferation in a model of acute and delayed cardiac rejection. Chronic treatment with NOX-700 prolonged graft survival. In combination with low-dose cyclosporine (CsA), NOX-700 produced a synergistic action to prolong graft survival. NOX-700 decreased myocardial heme nitrosylation. A single bolus injection with NOX-700 in untreated recipients did not decrease heme nitrosylation but normalized NO metabolites and caused the formation of a mononitrosyl iron complex indicating NO scavenging in vivo. NOX-700 alone given with CsA inhibited protein nitration. NOX-700 or CsA each alone decreased intragraft inflammatory cell infiltration. NOX-700 also potentiated the CsA-induced inhibition of splenocyte proliferation ex vivo stimulated by concanavalin A. In splenocytes derived from treated rats but stimulated ex vivo in a mixed lymphocyte response (MLR), interferon-γ and cyclin D3 gene expression was inhibited by NOX-700 suggesting down-regulation of lymphocyte activation and proliferation by in vivo treatment. These studies suggest that NOX-700 is protective in cardiac rejection, in part, by scavenging of NO and by limiting lymphocyte activation infiltration.

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