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To evaluate the clinical benefits and risks of anticoagulation with warfarin in cirrhotic patients with atrial fibrillation (AF).A total of 465 cirrhotic patients diagnosed with nonvalvular AF were retrospectively analyzed. We compared incidences of ischemic stroke and major bleeding events between the 2 groups and examined the factors predicting ischemic stroke or major bleeding events.Of 465 patients with AF, 113 (24.3%) received warfarin. Warfarin users had a lower mean Child–Pugh score (6.1 ± 1.5 vs. 7.6 ± 2.6) and a higher mean CHA2DS2VASc score (2.0 ± 2.5 vs. 1.7 ± 1.3) than nonusers (P's < 0.05). Overall, the incidence of ischemic stroke was low in cirrhotic patients with AF. It was not dependent on the CHA2DS2VASc score (hazard ratio, 1.40; 95% confidence interval, 0.96–2.05; P = 0.081), and was comparable in warfarin users (0.9%/person-year) and nonusers (1.2%/person-year). However, the incidence of major bleeding events was significantly higher in warfarin users (5.9% vs. 2.6%; P < 0.05). A multivariate analysis identified warfarin use (2.60; 95% confidence interval, 1.32–5.12) and Child–Pugh score (1.25; 1.04–1.49) as independently associated with bleeding events in these cirrhotic patients (P's < 0.05). There was no correlation between HAS-BLED score and risk of major bleeding (1.20; 0.95–1.52; P = 0.123).Anticoagulation with warfarin in cirrhotic patients with AF may not significantly reduce the risk of ischemic stroke, whereas it increases hemorrhagic complications.