Hemodynamic Effects, Safety, and Feasibility of Intravenous Esmolol Infusion During Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy With Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction: Results From A Multicenter Registry

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Left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO) may complicate an episode of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC), potentially leading to cardiogenic shock. Beta-blockers are considered the most suitable treatment for such complication.

Aim of the study:

The objective of this study was to evaluate the hemodynamic effects, safety, and feasibility of a selective beta-blocker (β1) with a short half-life, esmolol, in subjects with a TTC episode.


Ninety-six consecutive patients with TTC were enrolled in a multicenter registry. The hemodynamic and echocardiographic effects of esmolol (0.15–0.3 mg/kg/min) were analyzed in nine consecutive patients with LVOTO. Clinical course of patients, hemodynamics, days of hospitalization, LV function, and adverse events at follow-up were recorded.


Left ventricular outflow tract obstruction was present in 10 (10.4%) of 96 patients. Patients with LVOTO were older and had higher values of troponin-I at admission. LV ejection fraction at admission (36.1 ± 8.4%) significantly improved at discharge (51.4 ± 6.9%, P = 0.001). Among patients treated with esmolol infusion, LVOT pressure gradient before treatment was 47.6 ± 16.6 mmHg and after 18.2 ± 2.3 mmHg (P = 0.0091). Systolic blood pressure decreased from 123.8 ± 29.1 to 112.6 ± 12.7 mmHg (P = 0.1537). Mean hospital stay was 9 ± 2 days. No adverse events were observed during hospitalization and at follow-up.


Esmolol infusion was temporally associated with reduction in intraventricular gradient and systemic blood pressure in patients with TTC and LVOTO. Further controlled studies are warranted to confirm these preliminary findings.

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