Epidemiology in diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease

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As one of the leading causes of death in the USA, diabetes mellitus (DM) has become an epidemic over the past few decades. Despite the high prevalence of diagnosed DM, close to half of all people with DM are unaware of their disease. The risk of type 2 DM is determined by interplay of genetic and metabolic factors. Patients with type 2 DM have a higher risk of death from cardiovascular causes compared with their nondiabetic counterparts, and the mortality rate of DM associated cardiovascular disease is different among ethnicity groups and sex groups. Because of its adverse effect on people’s health, DM also imposes an economic burden on individuals and households affected, as well as on the healthcare system. Current guidelines for cardiovascular disease prevention have focused on lifestyle management, blood pressure control, lipid control, blood glucose control, antiplatelet agent use, and tobacco use cessation.

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