Factors affecting the haemodynamic behaviour of patients undergoing pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma removal: A review

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Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma are catecholamine-secreting tumours associated with major haemodynamic upheavals. The cardiovascular and other organ-related morbidity and even mortality has been ascribed to the major haemodynamic effects of these tumours. Many factors affect the nature and intensity of these haemodynamic changes. The rarity of these tumours as well as their extremely varied clinical presentation preclude conduct of randomized-controlled trials that may provide evidence in terms of these factors and the ways to predict and control them. Many retrospective studies and case reports, however, do provide some insight into their haemodynamic behaviour. Factors such as tumour pathology, associated genetic syndromes, anatomical attributes and perioperative drug therapy affect the haemodynamics of patients with these unique tumours. Knowledge of these factors and their presumed and known association with haemodynamic behaviour of the patients is important during the perioperative care of these patients. The review focuses on the tumour-related, patient-related and the perioperative care-related factors that affect the haemodynamic behaviour of these patients during the surgical removal of these tumours.

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