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High lipid levels play important roles in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and some authors suggest vitamin D deficiency as a risk factor for atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of vitamin D status on lipid profile in premenopausal women.A total of 315 nonsmoking premenopausal female volunteers without diabetes mellitus were included in the study. Patients were divided into four subgroups. The groups were as follows: patients with less than or equal to 12 ng/ml (group 1, n=126) vitamin D levels, between 20 and 12 ng/ml (group 2, n=48), between 30 and 20 ng/ml (group 3, n=21), and at least 30 ng/ml (group 4, n=120) vitamin D levels. Total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglyceride (TG), and non-HDL-C levels of the four groups were compared.HDL-C levels of group 4 were the highest (P=0.03), and TG and non-HDL-C levels of group 1 were the highest (P=0.04, 0.016, respectively) in all groups. There was no significant difference between serum parathormone, calcium, and phosphorus levels of the four groups (P=0.778, 0.121, 0.184, respectively). In unadjusted analysis, 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels were found to be correlated negatively with BMI (P=0.0005), LDL-C (P=0.01), and non-HDL-C (P=0.003) and correlated positively with HDL-C levels (P=0.006). After adjustments for age, sex, BMI, and log parathormone levels were made, no correlation was found between 25-hydroxy vitamin D and lipid (TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, and TG) levels (P=0.91, 0.06, 0.95, 0.79, respectively).There may be an association between vitamin D insufficiency and dyslipidemia. However, this association may depend on obesity.