Aging Male Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat as an Animal Model for the Evaluation of the Interplay between Contrast-Induced Acute Kidney Injury and Cardiorenal Syndrome in Humans

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Abstract

Background: Although there are some animal models for biomarkers of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI), for cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) and for acute renal failure, the interplay between CI-AKI and CRS has yet to be evaluated. Insight into the pathogenesis of CRS is urgently needed from animal models in order to foster the discovery and implementation of novel biomarkers for this disease. Specially designed animal models for type 1 and 3 CRS, particularly CI-AKI, have not yet emerged. Summary: We hypothesize that the aging male spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is likely to be a suitable model. The SHR model is able to mimic risk factors for preclinical CRS that appears in the clinical setting, specifically hypertension, age, preexisting damage and dysfunction of the heart and kidney, endothelial dysfunction, increased level of reactive oxygen species, decreased level and bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO), impairment of the L-arginine-NO pathway, and insulin resistance. In the SHR, CI-AKI results in a different profile of AKI biomarkers than is seen with preexisting chronic kidney injury. Key Messages: The SHR model can be used to evaluate the interaction between CI-AKI and CRS type 1 and 3 and to verify neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) as a reliable CI-AKI biomarker for clinical application. Further research is warranted with a large number of aging male SHRs to prove NGAL as a sensitive, specific, highly predictive, early biomarker for CI-AKI.

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