Dental erosive wear is a multifactorial condition that is greatly affected by environmental factors. So far, no study has investigated how dental erosive wear is influenced by variations in enamel formation genes. The aim of the present study was to investigate polymorphisms in genes involved in enamel formation and their influence on enamel susceptibility to dental erosion. DNA samples were collected from 795 Norwegian adolescents aged 16-18 years. Five single-nucleotide polymorphism markers were genotyped in selected candidate genes (ameloblastin, amelogenin, enamelin, tuftelin 1 and tuftelin interacting protein 11), reported to influence enamel formation. Allele and genotype frequencies were compared within two patient groups with dental erosions; all participants with dental erosion and only those with severe dental erosion (erosion extending into dentine). Overrepresentation of the G allele of the enamelin marker was seen in the erosion group compared to the unaffected group (p = 0.047). When erosion severity was considered, statistical significant difference in allele frequency was observed for amelogenin, with the C allele suggesting a protective role (p = 0.02). A suggestive overrepresentation of the TT genotype of the amelogenin marker was also seen in cases with severe erosion (p = 0.049) when compared to cases with no dentine erosion. Amelogenin was also associated with severe erosion in the recessive model; the TT genotype was significantly more frequent in the affected group than in the unaffected group (p = 0.01). The present study suggests that polymorphisms in enamel formation genes are statistically associated with an individual's susceptibility to dental erosive wear.