Recent progress in the field of molecular biology and techniques of DNA sequence analysis allowed determining the meaning of hereditary factors of many common human diseases. Studies of genetic mechanisms in the aetiology of caries encompass, primarily, 4 main groups of genes responsible for (1) the development of enamel, (2) formation and composition of saliva, (3) immunological responses, and (4) carbohydrate metabolism. The aim of this study was to present current knowledge about the influence of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genetic variants on the occurrence of dental caries. PubMed/Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were searched for papers on the influence of genetic factors connected with SNP on the occurrence of dental caries in children, teenagers, and adults. Thirty original papers written in English were included in this review. Study groups ranged from 30 to 13,000 subjects. SNPs were observed in 30 genes. Results of the majority of studies confirm the participation of hereditary factors in the aetiology of caries. Three genes, AMELX, AQP5, and ESRRB, have the most promising evidence based on multiple replications and data, supporting a role of these genes in caries. The review of the literature proves that SNP is linked with the aetiology of dental caries.