The aim of this study was to evaluate whether genetic polymorphisms in AMELX, AMBN, ENAM, TFIP11, and TUFT1 genes are associated with dental fluorosis (DF). A total of 1,017 children from 2 Brazilian cohorts were evaluated. These populations lived in cities with fluoridation of public water supplies. DF was assessed in erupted permanent teeth using the modified Dean index. The polymorphisms rs946252, rs12640848, rs4694075, rs5997096, and rs4970957 were analyzed by real-time PCR from genomic DNA. Associations between DF, genotype, and allele distribution were evaluated using the χ2 test, with an alpha of 5%. The polymorphisms rs4694075, rs5997096, and rs4970957 in AMBN, TFIP11, and TUFT1 were associated with DF (p < 0.05). In conclusion, enamel matrix genes are associated with DF.