Sodium Trimetaphosphate as a Novel Strategy for Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibition and Dentin Remineralization


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Abstract

The effect of sodium trimetaphosphate (STMP) as an antiproteolytic and remineralizing agent on demineralized dentin was evaluated in vitro. The inhibitory potential of STMP at 0.5, 1.5, 3.5, and 5% against recombinant matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) MMPs-2 and -9 was assessed by zymography. To investigate its remineralization potential, 40 bovine root specimens were obtained and subjected to a demineralization protocol to produce caries-like dentin lesions. After that, dentin surfaces were divided into 3 areas: (1) mineralized (no treatment); (2) demineralized; and (3) demineralized/treated with STMP and submitted to a pH-cycling associated or not with STMP (1.5, 3.5, or 5% STMP, 10 min of treatment). After that, superficial hardness (SH) and cross-sectional hardness (CSH) were determined. Polarized light microscopy (PLM) was used to qualitatively evaluate mineralization within the caries-like lesions. The zymographic analysis showed that STMP solution is a potent inhibitor of the gelatinolytic activity of MMPs-2 and -9 depending on the dose, since the lowest concentration (0.5%) partially inhibited the enzyme activity, while the higher concentrations completely inhibited enzyme activity. Regarding remineralization effect, only 1.5% STMP solution enhanced both the SH and CSH. PLM showed that the area treated with 1.5% STMP presented similar birefringence as mineralized sound dentin. In conclusion, 1.5% STMP solution is effective as an antiproteolytic agent against MMPs and promotes dentin remineralization.

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