Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in Experimental Oral Biofilms Exposed to Different Carbohydrate Sources

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Probiotic administration may favour caries prevention, as recent research has shown. This in vitro study aimed to investigate the growth of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) in experimental biofilms exposed to various carbohydrates, and also to assess its cariogenic potential. Multispecies experimental oral biofilms with or without LGG were grown with a sole-carbohydrate source (fructose/glucose/lactose/sorbitol/sucrose). The viable cells of LGG and structure of the biofilms were examined after 64.5 h of incubation, and pH values of spent media were measured at 16.5, 40.5, and 64.5 h. Fermentation profiles of LGG in biofilm media were assessed with study carbohydrate as the sole energy source. Our results showed that LGG reached higher viable cell numbers with glucose and sucrose in 64.5-h multispecies experimental oral biofilms compared to other carbohydrates. When LGG was incorporated in biofilms, no distinct pH changes at any time points were observed under any of the carbohydrates used; the pH values of spent media at each time point were lower when lactose was used, compared to other carbohydrates. The fermentation profiles of LGG in biofilm media were similar to its growth in MRS (no obvious growth with lactose or sucrose). In conclusion, LGG in our in vitro multispecies experimental oral biofilms was capable of surviving and growing well in each carbohydrate source. LGG might not have harmful effects on dental hard tissues. Another finding from our study was that the lowest pH values were observed in the presence of lactose, and the thickest biofilms were in sucrose.

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