The aim of this study was to evaluate the antierosive effect of phosphorylated chitosan in dentin. Bovine dentin specimens were randomly distributed into the following groups: (1) no treatment (NoTx/negative control), (2) phosphate-buffered saline solution (PBS), (3) AmF/NaF/SnCl2 (positive control), (4) 0.5% chitosan solution (Chi), (5) 0.5% neutral phosphorylated (NP)-Chi, and (6) 0.5% alkaline phosphorylated (AP)-Chi. The specimens were submitted to de-remineralization treatment cycles for 5 days: 0.5% citric acid (2 min), remineralizing solution (30 min), and surface treatment according to assigned groups (2 min, 6×/day). The loss of dentin surface was measured by profilometry. Hardness and modulus of elasticity were measured using a nanoindenter equipped with a Berkovich diamond tip. The dentin surface was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The largest loss of dentin was observed in the No Tx and PBS groups (approx. 25 µm). The group treated with AmF/NaF/SnCl2 showed less loss of dentin (67% reduction vs. NoTx and PBS), followed by the groups treated with NP-Chi and AP-Chi (33% reduction), and Chi (18% reduction). Nanohardness and modulus of elasticity were similar in the NoTx and PBS groups, with a small increase in stiffness in all other groups. SEM revealed that the experimental solution of AP-Chi had a favorable effect on maintaining the integrity of collagen fibrils. AmF/NaF/SnCl2 showed a preserved mineralized collagen surface. Further studies are warranted to explore this nontoxic phosphorylated chitosan polymer as an effective agent in the prevention and treatment of dental erosion.