Peritoneal, bronchoalveolar and hepatic (Kupffer) macrophages activated in vitro by endotoxin, exhibit alterations in nitric oxide production when certain hormones or other biologically active agents (autacoids) are present in the culture medium. They also show changes in acid β-glucuronidase activities and morphological changes concerning cell size and general appearance. Agents known to elevate the intracellular levels of cyclic AMP, e.g. adrenalin, prostaglandin E2 and dopamine, increase the nitric oxide production in all three types of macrophage. The addition of H-89, an inhibitor of protein kinase A, abolishes the increase in nitric oxide production. Adrenalin also increases the extracellular activity of β-glucuronidase. The results of this work suggest that cyclic AMP-elevating hormones and autacoids affect the functions of endotoxin-activated macrophages, such as the production of nitric oxide and the activity of acid β-glucuronidase.