Protective effects of long term dietary restriction on swimming exercise-induced oxidative stress in the liver, heart and kidney of rat

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In this study, we evaluated the hypothesis that long term dietary restriction would have beneficial effects on the oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme systems in liver, heart and kidney in adult male rats undergoing different intensities of swimming exercise. Sixty male, Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned as either dietary restricted on every other week day (DR) or fed ad libitum (AL) groups, and each group was further subdivided into sedentary, endurance swimming exercise training (submaximal exercise) and exhaustive swimming exercise (maximal exercise) groups. Animals in the submaximal exercise group swam 5 days/week for 8 weeks, while maximal exercise was performed as an acute bout of exercise.

In parallel with the increase in the intensity of the exercise, the degree of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation were increased in both the DR and AL groups; however the rate of increase was lower in the DR group. Reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and glutathione reductase (GR) enzyme activities were lower in the DR group than in the AL group. In parallel with the increase in exercise intensity, GSH and GR enzyme activities decreased, whereas an increase was observed in GSH-Px enzyme activity.

In conclusion, the comparison between the DR and AL groups with the three swimming exercise conditions shows that the DR group is greatly protected against different swimming exercise-induced oxidative stress compared with the AL group.

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