The acute effects of isolated and combined L-alanine (L-Ala) and L-glutamine (L-Gln) on liver gluconeogenesis, ureagenesis and glycaemic recovery during short-term insulin-induced hypoglycaemia (IIH) were investigated. For this purpose, 24-h fasted rats that received intraperitoneal injection of regular insulin (1.0 U/Kg) were investigated. The control group (COG group) were represented by rats which received saline. The studies were performed 30 min after insulin (IIH group) or saline (COG group) injection. Livers from IIH and COG groups were perfused with basal or saturating levels of L-Ala, L-Gln or L-Gln + L-Ala (L-G + L-A). The production of glucose, urea, L-lactate and pyruvate in livers from IIH and COG group were markedly increased (p < 0.001) when perfused with saturating levels of L-Ala, L-Gln or L-G + L-A compared with basal levels of the same substrates. In addition, livers from IIH rats showed greater ability in producing glucose and urea from saturating levels of L-Ala compared with L-Gln or L-G + L-A. In agreement with these results, the oral administration of L-Ala (100 mg/kg) promoted better glycaemic recovery than L-Gln (100 mg/kg) or the combination of L-G (50 mg/kg) + L-A (50 mg/kg). It can be concluded that L-Ala, but not L-Gln or L-G + L-A could help glycaemic recovery by a mechanism mediated, partly at least, by the increased gluconeogenic and ureagenic efficiency of L-Ala.