Carotid artery stenosis (CS) is a major cause of ischemic stroke. Treatment of CS consists of best medical treatment and carotid revascularization (CR), including carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and carotid artery stenting (CAS). Both CR techniques have their own procedural risks. Therefore, selection of the appropriate treatment for patients with CS is relatively complicated. Many studies and guidelines have reported the efficacy of each treatment for both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. However, the results are still controversial, especially concerning the efficacy and safety of CEA and CAS. In this paper, we review and discuss the current evidence and compare results from studies of CEA and CAS, including major randomized trials, meta-analyses and ongoing trials. Moreover, based on the current data, we propose a new comprehensive decision-making for the management of CS.