This a phase I study of veliparib and metronomic-dose cyclophosphamide in patients with metastatic human epidermal growth factor receptor 2/neu negative breast cancer, an incurable disease that requires new treatment options. Our study defined the recommended phase II dose and revealed that this combination is well-tolerated and has activity in BRCA-mutated breast cancer.Background:
Poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase is an essential nuclear enzyme, involved in base-excision repair of damaged DNA. Poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase inhibition sensitizes tumor cells to cytotoxic agents, which induce DNA damage, including cyclophosphamide (C), and metronomic dosing of C may optimize potential for synergy.Methods:
The primary objective of this phase I trial was to determine the safety and identify the recommended phase II dose of the combination of low-dose oral C (50, 75, 100, and 125 mg) once daily in combination with veliparib (V) (100, 200, and 300 mg) administered twice a day (BID) for 21-day cycles using a standard 3 + 3 design in patients with metastatic human epidermal growth factor receptor 2/neu-negative breast cancer. Dose-limiting toxicity was defined as any grade 3 non-hematologic toxicity or grade 4 thrombocytopenia/neutropenia occurring during cycle 1.Results:
A total of 31 patients were enrolled; 19 were treated with 50 mg of C and 12 were treated at higher doses (75, 100, or 125 mg), with V doses ranging from 50 to 300 mg BID. The recommended phase II dose of the combination was V 200 mg orally BID plus C 125 mg orally daily, with nausea and headache dose-limiting at higher V dose levels. Objective response or stable disease for at least 24 weeks occurred in 3 (43%) of 7 patients with known deleterious germline BRCA mutations and 2 (11%) of 19 patients with negative/unknown mutation status (P = .1).Conclusion:
The combination of oral continuous dosing of V (200 mg orally BID) with metronomic C (50, 75, 100, and 125 mg daily) is well-tolerated and shows antitumor activity in patients with BRCA–mutation-associated metastatic human epidermal growth factor receptor 2/neu-negative breast cancer.