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Trastuzumab resistance in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer patients remains a major clinical problem. We evaluated the association of HER2 polymorphisms, tobacco use and alcohol consumption with disease-free survival in HER2-positive breast cancer patients and found that tobacco and alcohol consumption as well as one HER2 polymorphism could influence trastuzumab response. These results need to be confirmed in a larger cohort study.Although the administration of trastuzumab has improved the survival of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer patients, resistance remains a major clinical obstacle. We retrospectively evaluated the association of HER2 polymorphisms, tobacco use and alcohol consumption with disease-free survival (DFS) in HER2-positive breast cancer patients.Clinicopathologic and survival data (median follow-up, 7.4 years) were collected from medical records for 236 nonmetastatic trastuzumab-treated HER2-positive breast cancer patients. Tobacco and alcohol consumption were assessed using validated questionnaires, and HER2 polymorphisms (Ile655Val and Ala1170Pro) were determined by TaqMan assay. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard models were used to analyze DFS.Compared to nonsmokers, patients who smoked before breast cancer diagnosis showed a worse DFS (hazard ratio [HR], 2.63, P = .001), and this association was stronger among patients who smoked > 20 cigarettes per day or who spent more than 2 decades smoking before their diagnosis (HR, 3.65, P = .01, and HR, 3.19, P = .002, respectively). Smoking during trastuzumab treatment was associated with DFS, but only among patients with estrogen receptor–negative tumors (HR, 4.49, P = .02). Compared to nondrinkers, patients who consumed alcohol before breast cancer diagnosis had a significantly better DFS (HR, 0.56, P = .03). No association was observed between alcohol consumption during trastuzumab treatment and DFS. Concerning HER2 polymorphisms, patients with Ile/Val or Val/Val genotype had a significantly worse DFS than those with the Ile/Ile genotype (HR, 4.96, P = .01).Tobacco and alcohol consumption as well as HER2 Ile655Val polymorphism could influence trastuzumab response. These results need to be confirmed in a larger cohort study.