Methidathion (MD) phosphorodithioic acid S-[(5-methoxy-2-oxo-1,3,4-thiadiazol-3(2H)-yl)methyl] O,O-dimethyl ester is the organophosphate insecticide (OPI) most commonly used worldwide in the pest control of crops. Subchronic MD exposure was evaluated for its effects on lipid peroxidation, the serum activities of cholinesterase (ChE), and enzymes concerning liver damage, and the protective effects of combination of vitamins E and C in albino rats. Additionally, the histopathological changes in liver tissue were examined. Experimental groups were as follows: control group; a group treated with 5 mg/kg body weight MD (MD group); and a group treated with 5 mg/kg body wight MD plus vitamin E plus vitamin C (MD+AO group). The MD and MD+AO groups were treated orally with MD on five days a week for 4 weeks. The serum activities of cholinesterase (ChE), alanine transferase (ALT), aspartate amiotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), β-glutamyltransferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) and liver histopathology were studied. In serum samples, MD significantly increased MDA concentration and ALP, AST, GGT, LDH activities but decreased the ALT and ChE activities. In the MD+AO group, MDA level and ALP, AST, LDH activities were significantly decreased and ChE activity was increased compared to the MD group. Histopathological changes found in liver tissue of rats treated with MD included were infiltration with mononuclear cells in all portal areas, sinusoidal dilatation, and focal microvesicular steatosis and hydropic degenerations in parenchymal tissue. The severity of these lesions was reduced by administration of vitamins. From these results, it can be concluded that subchronic MD causes liver damage, and lipid peroxidation may be a molecular mechanism involved in MD-induced toxicity. Furthermore, the combination of vitamins E and C can reduce the toxic effects of MD on liver tissue of rats.