Obesity continues to be an increasing health problem in worldwide and antiobesity drugs have commonly been used by obese patients. During the use of anorectic drugs, the antioxidant defense may be affected, especially by reactive oxygen species. It was decided to investigate the effects of dexfenfluramine on body weight, daily food intake, brain thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), glutathione (GSH) and nitric oxide (NO) levels, and 5-HT immunoreactivity. Mice were divided into two groups each containing 8 Swiss Albino adult (6 months) mice. Group 1, untreated, was used as a control; group 2 was treated with dexfenfluramine 0.4 mg/kg per day intraperitoneally for 7 days. Brain TBARS and GSH levels were assayed spectrophotometrically. The stable end-products of NO, nitrite and nitrate, were analyzed spectrophotometrically. Brain tissue 5-HT immunoreactivity was observed using an immunohistochemical method. There were significant decreases in body weight in the dexfenfluramine group (p < 0.05). Although brain GSH and NOx levels decreased significantly, brain TBARS levels increased in the dexfenfluramine group (p < 0.05). Brain 5-HT immunoreactivity also increased in the dexfenfluramine-treated group compared to control. In conclusion, our findings show that dexfenfluramine is effective in achieving weight loss and also increases lipid peroxidation in mouse brain.