Additive Prognostic Value of Echocardiographic Global Longitudinal and Global Circumferential Strain to Electrocardiographic Criteria in Patients With Heart Failure Undergoing Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy

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Response to cardiac resynchronization therapy is most favorable in patients with heart failure with QRS duration ≥150 ms and left bundle branch block and less predictable in those with QRS width 120 to 149 ms or non–left bundle branch block.

Methods and Results—

We studied 205 patients with heart failure referred for cardiac resynchronization therapy with QRS ≥120 ms and ejection fraction ≤35%. We tested the hypothesis that contractile function using speckle-tracking echocardiographic global circumferential strain (GCS) from 2 short-axis views and global longitudinal strain (GLS) from 3 apical views add prognostic value to electrocardiographic criteria. There were 112 patients (55%) with GLS >−9% and 136 patients (66%) with GCS >−9%. During 4 years, 81 patients reached the combined primary end point (death, circulatory support, or transplant) and 120 reached the secondary end point (heart failure hospitalization or death). Both GLS >−9% and GCS >−9% were associated with increased risk of unfavorable events as follows: for the primary end point (hazard ratio=2.91; 95% confidence interval, 1.88–4.49; P<0.001) and (hazard ratio=3.73; 95% confidence interval, 2.39–5.82; P<0.001) for the secondary end point (hazard ratio=2.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.45–3.05; P<0.001) and (hazard ratio=3.25; 95% confidence interval, 2.23–4.75; P<0.001). In a prespecified subgroup of 120 patients with QRS 120 to 149 ms or non–left bundle branch block, significant associations of baseline GLS and GCS and outcomes remained: P=0.014 and P=0.002 for the primary end point and P=0.049 and P=0.001 for the secondary end point. Global strain measures had additive prognostic value to routine clinical or electrocardiographic parameters (P<0.001).


Baseline GCS and GLS were significantly associated with long-term outcome after cardiac resynchronization therapy and had additive prognostic value to routine clinical and electrocardiographic selection criteria for cardiac resynchronization therapy.

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