Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a multifactorial disease resulting from lifestyle, genetic, and environmental factors. There are hereditary and non-hereditary CRC types; however, the majority are non-hereditary and mainly caused by somatic mutations in response to environmental factors. In past years, researchers have focused their attention on the mechanisms behind these factors and the methods of improving disease prevention and treatment. Improving the awareness of the population with regard to the benefits of a healthy lifestyle, including a balanced diet associated with exercise, could globally reduce CRC risk. The present review aims to address the current knowledge on CRC, taking into consideration the common molecular alterations upon different environmental and non-environmental factors, current and promising treatment interventions, and how all these factors may interact to positively or negatively influence CRC risk.