Stereotactic Robotic Body Radiotherapy for Patients With Unresectable Hepatic Oligorecurrence

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We present our retrospective study of 42 patients treated for hepatic oligorecurrence with stereotactic body radiotherapy using the CyberKnife system (Accuray Inc). Besides reporting on acute and late toxicities, the influence of patient and lesion characteristics on local control, liver and distant progression-free survival, and overall survival were also investigated.


The purpose of this study was to analyze local control (LC), liver progression-free survival (PFS), and distant PFS (DFS), overall survival (OS), and toxicity in a cohort of patients treated with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) with fiducial tracking for oligorecurrent liver lesions; and to evaluate the potential influence of lesion size, systemic treatment, physical and biologically effective dose (BED), treatment calculation algorithms and other parameters on the obtained results.

Patients and Methods

Unoperable patients with sufficient liver function had [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography-computed tomography and liver magnetic resonance imaging to confirm the oligorecurrent nature of the disease and to further delineate the gross tumor volume (GTV). An intended dose of 45 Gy in 3 fractions was prescribed on the 80% isodose and adapted if risk-related. Treatment was executed with the CyberKnife system (Accuray Inc) platform using fiducials tracking. Initial plans were recalculated using the Monte Carlo algorithm. Patient and treatment data were processed using the Kaplan–Meier method and log rank test for survival analysis.


Between 2010 and 2015, 42 patients (55 lesions) were irradiated. The mean GTV and planning target volume (PTV) were 30.5 cc and 96.8 cc, respectively. Treatments were delivered 3 times per week in a median of 3 fractions to a PTV median dose of 54.6 Gy. The mean GTV and PTV D98% were 51.6 Gy and 51.2 Gy, respectively. Heterogeneity corrections did not influence dose parameters. After a median follow-up of 18.9 months, the 1- and 2-year LC/liver PFS/DFS/OS were 81.3%/55%/62.4%/86.9%, and 76.3%/42.3%/52%/78.3%, respectively. Performance status and histology had a significant effect on LC, whereas age (older than 65 years) marginally influenced liver PFS. Clinical target volume physical dose V45 Gy > 95%, generalized equivalent uniform dose (a = −30) > 45 Gy and a BED (α/β = 10) V105 Gy > 96% showed statistically significant effect on the LC. Acute Grade 3 gastrointestinal (GI) and late Grade 2 GI and fatigue toxicity were found in 5% and 11% patients, respectively.


Favorable survival and toxicity results support the potential paradigm shift in which the use of SBRT in oligorecurrent liver disease could benefit patients with unresectable or resectable liver metastases.

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