The compliance of 581 drug addicts attending six methadone substitution outpatient clinics was determined over a period of 18 months. Urine from these patients was labeled following oral administration of low molecular weight polyethylene glycols as marker substances. These substances were measured in approx. 5800 urine samples. A protocol for applying marker substances and ways to prevent substitution of urine samples were evaluated. Normal values for marker substances in urine were determined. The results suggest that this labeling procedure is a new diagnostic tool to prevent manipulation of urine samples by drug addicts receiving substitution therapy.