Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common causes of cancer-induced death. Somatic mutation of the p53 gene is the most common genetic abnormality so far described in human cancer and there is evidence that supports a high level of p53 alterations in HCC. The aim of this study was to investigate serum levels of p53 in Egyptian patients with HCC, and its relation to other prognostic factors such as tumor grade, α-fetoprotein (AFP), and liver function tests in an attempt to clarify their significance in the pathogenesis of the disease. Liver function tests were carried out and AFP and p53 levels were measured for all individuals studied. Our results show that detection of p53 increased the frequency of HCC prediction from 79.5% to 86.3%. Moreover, significant positive correlation between p53 and tumor size (cm) for tumor grade II and III was identified. In conclusion, serum concentration of p53 protein may be a convenient and useful non-invasive screening test for prediction of HCC.