Multiple qualitative and quantitative methods for free light chain analysis are necessary as first line tests for AL amyloidosis

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The objective of this study was to demonstrate the necessity of using different methods for amyloidogenic light chain detection. Serum and urine agarose gel electrophoresis and immunofixation, as well as serum free light chain (FLC) immunoassay measurements, were evaluated in a patient with verified multiple myeloma and consequent AL amyloidosis confirmed by Congo red staining and immunofluorescence techniques. Conventional chemistry tests [serum and urine electrophoresis (SPE and UPE); serum and urine immunofixation (SIFE and UIFE)] were inconclusive. Only quantitative FLC immunoassay (serum free light chain immunoanalysis, SFLC) provided correct diagnostic information. A combination of gel-based SIFE and UIFE with more novel quantitative FLC immunoassays appears necessary when searching for monoclonal immunoglobulin light chain-related diseases.

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