Looking beyond linear regression and Bland-Altman plots: a comparison of the clinical performance of 25-hydroxyvitamin D tests

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Abstract

Background:

The systematic evaluation of the clinical concordance of various 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) testing methods is presented. The need for this approach is raised by the discrepancies in the analytical performance of the available assays.

Methods:

The analytical and clinical performance of six automated 25OHD assays and an in-house liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was investigated. Leftover serum samples (n=162, SA: n=114) were analyzed and all 21 assay combinations were evaluated. The utility of Cohen's κ values was assessed by transforming them into minimum percentage agreement (MPA). McNemar's hypothesis test was employed for testing the symmetry of the disagreeing classification outcomes within each method pair.

Results:

Depending on the assay method, the ratio of results classified as positive (<20 ng/mL) was 13.5%-40.0%. The percentage agreement (PA) was 74.1%-92.6%. Compared to other methods, significantly more hypovitaminosis cases were delivered by DiaSorin Liaison® 25 OH vitamin D Total (DL) and significantly fewer by IDS-iSYS 25-Hydroxy Vitamin DS (II). The strongest clinical concordance was exerted by II vs. LC-MS/MS. The κ-derived MPA showed close similarity to the PA scores. McNemar's tests confirmed the asymmetry of the disagreement in the classification in 14 method combinations.

Conclusions:

The presented approach allows the prediction of the clinical consequences of a 25OHD method transfer. Differences in the clinical classification of assay results are likely encountered when transferring to a new method, even between assays standardized according to the Vitamin D Standardization Program (VDSP) Reference Method Procedure (RMP).

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