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Low back pain (LBP) is a very frequent condition, affecting most people at some point throughout their life. This cross-sectional study was aimed to investigate a selected panel of cytokines and inflammatory biomarkers in patients with or without LBP.The study population consisted of 104 patients diagnosed with LBP (52 non-persistent and 52 persistent) and 52 healthy subjects with no LBP. Blood samples were collected for assessment of adiponectin, leptin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and C reactive protein (CRP). The duration of LBP was categorized as “no pain”, “non-persistent LBP” and “persistent LBP”.Higher values of CRP and lower concentrations of both leptin and MCP-1 were found in LBP patients compared to controls, whereas adiponectin did not differ among groups. MCP-1 was also lower in patients with non-persistent than in those with persistent LBP. Age, leptin (relative risk, 11.8; 95% CI, 3.9-35.8) and MCP-1 (relative risk, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.7-4.4) were independently associated with presence and duration of LBP. The combination of age, leptin and MCP-1 predicted 61% of the risk of LBP duration. The area under the curve of MCP-1 for distinguishing persistent from non-persistent LBP was 0.65 (95% CI, 0.54-0.76).Then results of our study suggest that leptin and MCP-1 may be promising biomarkers for diagnosis of acute LBP and its risk to become chronic.