Liquid biopsy in ovarian cancer: recent advances on circulating tumor cells and circulating tumor DNA

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Ovarian cancer remains the most lethal disease among gynecological malignancies despite the plethora of research studies during the last decades. The majority of patients are diagnosed in an advanced stage and exhibit resistance to standard chemotherapy. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) represent the main liquid biopsy approaches that offer a minimally invasive sample collection. Both have shown a diagnostic, prognostic and predictive value in many types of solid malignancies and recent studies attempted to shed light on their role in ovarian cancer. This review is mainly focused on the clinical value of both CTCs and ctDNA in ovarian cancer and, more specifically, on their potential as diagnostic, prognostic and predictive tumor biomarkers.

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