Salivary biomarkers and cardiovascular disease: a systematic review

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Background:The purpose of this systematic review is to summarize the literature examining associations between salivary biomarkers and cardiovascular disease (CVD) status.Contents:An advanced search was conducted using MeSH terms related to salivary biomarkers and CVD, and entered into the PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar search databases. Four hundred and thirty-three records were narrowed to 22 accepted articles. Included titles were assessed for quality using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale, and ranked into categories of low, moderate, or high.Summary:A total of 40 salivary biomarkers were analyzed among accepted articles. The most studied markers were salivary creatine kinase isoform MB, C-reactive protein (CRP), matrix metalloproteinase-9, troponin I, myeloperoxidase, myoglobin, and brain natriuretic peptide. Salivary CRP provided the most consistent trends. Statistically significant increases of salivary CRP were present with CVD in every study that analyzed it. The remaining six markers demonstrated varying patterns.Outlook:Existing studies provide insufficient data to draw definitive conclusions. Current research shows that there is an association between some salivary biomarkers and CVD, but the details of existing studies are conflicting. Despite inconclusive results, the diagnostic potential of saliva shows promise as a non-invasive means of cardiovascular risk assessment.

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