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The accurate determination of the oxygen equilibrium curve (OEC) of whole blood or red cell suspensions requires special considerations to avoid the secondary effects due to lactate formation, removal of carbon dioxide, use of anticoagulants, etc. An automated apparatus has been constructed that can record the whole OEC of red cells within 20 min. The instrument also can be used to record the OEC of hemolysate. The pH, temperature, and PO2 are monitored constantly during the measurement. Using this instrument, the effects of pH, temperature, carbon dioxide, anticoagulants, and buffers on the OEC of normal fresh blood have been investigated. The OEC of normal blood, blood containing abnormal hemoglobin, or enzyme, were determined. The results were compared with those obtained using commercial OEC apparatuses.