The nuclear factor (NF)-κB regulates inflammatory responses and plays important roles in the pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Inhibitor κB-α (NFKBIA) inhibits NF-κB and controls its activities. The objective was to determine whether polymorphisms in NFKBIA gene would be associated with ARDS development.Design:
Prospective cohort of adults with clinical risk factors for ARDS.Setting:
Patients were 1,210 critically ill Caucasian patients meeting study criteria for a defined risk factor for ARDS who were enrolled and prospectively followed for 60 days; 382 had ARDS, and 828 were controls.Interventions:
Genetic polymorphisms in the NFKBIA promoter (−881A/G, −826C/T, −297C/T) were determined using TaqMan techniques.Measurements and Main Results:
The three polymorphisms were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. No individual genotype was significantly associated with ARDS development. In contrast, haplotypes of NFKBIA were globally associated with ARDS development (p = .02, degree of freedom = 2). The frequency of haplotype GTC (−881G/−826T/−297C) was significantly higher among ARDS patients (7.4%) than that among controls (5.2%) (p = .03). Crude analysis showed that the haplotype GTC was significantly associated with higher risks of ARDS in the whole cohort compared with the common haplotype ACC (−881A/−826C/−297C) (odds ratio [OR], 1.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03–2.09; p = .03), especially among male subjects (OR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.20–2.97; p < .01). After adjustment for covariates, the haplotype GTC remained significantly associated with increased risk of ARDS in the whole cohort (OR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.09–2.53; p = .02), particularly among male patients (OR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.16–3.40; p = .02) and among subjects with direct pulmonary injury (OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.04–2.95; p = .04).Conclusions:
The haplotype GTC of NFKBIA gene is associated with higher risk of ARDS in Caucasians, particularly in male patients and in patients with direct lung injury.