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Evaluations of plasma leptin and ghrelin levels and their relations with circulating levels of proinflammatory mediators, stress hormones, and biochemical markers of hepatorenal injury during experimental endotoxemia in dogs.Uludag University.Placebo-controlled animal study.Adult mongrel dogs (n = 16).Intravenous injection of endotoxin (1 mg/kg) and blood sample withdrawal before and at 0.5–48 hrs posttreatment.Mean baseline plasma leptin and ghrelin levels were 2.4 ± 0.1 ng/mL and 867 ± 58 pg/mL, respectively. Plasma leptin and ghrelin increased significantly by 16% (p < .05) and 72% (p < .001) at 0.5 hr, and they remained elevated by 33–41% (p < .001) and 59–74% (p < .001) at 48 hrs after administration of endotoxin, respectively. There was positive correlation (r = .844; p < .001) between plasma leptin and ghrelin levels in endotoxin-treated dogs. Endotoxemia was associated with several-fold elevations in circulating levels of stress hormones, proinflammatory mediators, and hepatorenal injury markers. Plasma leptin and ghrelin levels in endotoxin-treated dogs were correlated with serum nitric oxide (r = .955 and r = .890; p < .001), procalcitonin (r = .825 and r = .716; p < .001), cortisol (r = .823 and r = .786; p < .001), and hepatorenal injury markers (r = .580 to .745 and r = .393 to .574; p < .05 to .01).Circulating leptin and ghrelin levels increase during endotoxemia, and these increases are associated with elevated levels of proinflammatory mediators, stress hormones, and serum biochemical markers for hepatorenal dysfunction.