Acute Bradykinin Receptor Blockade During Hemorrhagic Shock in Mice Prevents the Worsening Hypotensive Effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor

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Abstract

Objectives:

Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors are associated with deleterious hypotension during anesthesia and shock. Because the pharmacologic effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors are partly mediated by increased bradykinin B2 receptor activation, this study aimed to determine the impact of acute B2 receptor blockade during hemorrhagic shock in angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor–treated mice.

Design:

In vivo study.

Setting:

University research unit.

Subjects:

C57/Bl6 mice.

Interventions:

The hemodynamic effect of B2 receptor blockade using icatibant (B2 receptor antagonist) was studied using a pressure-targeted hemorrhagic shock and a volume-targeted hemorrhagic shock. Animals were anesthetized with ketamine and xylazine (250 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg, respectively), intubated using intratracheal cannula, and ventilated (9 mL/kg, 150 min–1). Five groups were studied: 1) sham-operated animals, 2) control shocked mice, 3) shocked mice treated with ramipril for 7 days (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors) before hemorrhagic shock, 4) shocked mice treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and a single bolus of icatibant (HOE-140) immediately before anesthesia (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors + icatibant), and 5) shocked mice treated with a single bolus of icatibant. One hour after volume-targeted hemorrhagic shock, blood lactate was measured to evaluate organ failure.

Measurements and Main Results:

During pressure-targeted hemorrhagic shock, the mean blood volume withdrawn was significantly lower in the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor group than in the other groups (p < 0.001). During volume-targeted hemorrhagic shock, icatibant prevented blood pressure lowering in the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor group (p < 0.001). Blood lactate was significantly higher in the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor group than in the other groups, particularly the HOE groups.

Conclusions:

During hemorrhagic shock, acute B2 receptor blockade significantly attenuates the deleterious hemodynamic effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor treatment in mice. This beneficial effect of B2 receptor blockade is rapidly reached and sustained with a single bolus of icatibant. This benefit could be of interest in angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor–treated patients during both emergency anesthesia and resuscitation.

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