Double-Stranded RNA Interacts With Toll-Like Receptor 3 in Driving the Acute Inflammatory Response Following Lung Contusion

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Abstract

Objectives:

Lung contusion is a major risk factor for the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome. We set to determine the role of toll-like receptor 3 and the binding of double-stranded RNA in the pathogenesis of sterile injury following lung contusion.

Design:

Toll-like receptor 3 expression was analyzed in postmortem lung samples from patients with lung contusion. Unilateral lung contusion was induced in toll-like receptor 3 (–/–), TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (–/–), and wild-type mice. Subsequently, lung injury and inflammation were evaluated. Apoptotic indices, phagocytic activity, and phenotypic characterization of the macrophages were determined. Double-stranded RNA in bronchoalveolar lavage and serum samples following lung contusion was measured. A toll-like receptor 3/double-stranded RNA ligand inhibitor was injected into wild-type mice prior to lung contusion.

Measurements and Main Results:

Toll-like receptor 3 expression was higher in patients and wild-type mice with lung contusion. The degree of lung injury, inflammation, and macrophage apoptosis was reduced in toll-like receptor 3 (–/–), TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (–/–), and wild-type mice with toll-like receptor 3 antibody neutralization. Alveolar macrophages from toll-like receptor 3 (–/–) mice had a lower early apoptotic index, a predominant M2 phenotype and increased surface translocation of toll-like receptor 3 from the endosome to the surface. When compared with viral activation pathways, lung injury in lung contusion demonstrated increased p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation with inflammasome activation without a corresponding increase in nuclear factor-κB or type-1 interferon production. Additionally, pretreatment with toll-like receptor 3/double-stranded RNA ligand inhibitor led to a reduction in injury, inflammation, and macrophage apoptosis.

Conclusions:

We conclude that the interaction of double-stranded RNA from injured cells with toll-like receptor 3 drives the acute inflammatory response following lung contusion.

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