Healthcare Resource Use and Costs in Long-Term Survivors of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: A 5-Year Longitudinal Cohort Study*

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Abstract

Objective:

To evaluate the time-varying relationship of annual physical, psychiatric, and quality of life status with subsequent inpatient healthcare resource use and estimated costs.

Design:

Five-year longitudinal cohort study.

Setting:

Thirteen ICUs at four teaching hospitals.

Patients:

One hundred thirty-eight patients surviving greater than or equal to 2 years after acute respiratory distress syndrome.

Interventions:

None.

Measurements and Main Results:

Postdischarge inpatient resource use data (e.g., hospitalizations, skilled nursing, and rehabilitation facility stays) were collected via a retrospective structured interview at 2 years, with prospective collection every 4 months thereafter, until 5 years postacute respiratory distress syndrome. Adjusted odds ratios for hospitalization and relative medians for estimated episode of care costs were calculated using marginal longitudinal two-part regression. The median (interquartile range) number of inpatient admission hospitalizations was 4 (2–8), with 114 patients (83%) reporting greater than or equal to one hospital readmission. The median (interquartile range) estimated total inpatient postdischarge costs over 5 years were $58,500 ($19,700–157,800; 90th percentile, $328,083). Better annual physical and quality of life status, but not psychiatric status, were associated with fewer subsequent hospitalizations and lower follow-up costs. For example, greater grip strength (per 6 kg) had an odds ratio (95% CI) of 0.85 (0.73–1.00) for inpatient admission, with 23% lower relative median costs, 0.77 (0.69–0.87).

Conclusions:

In a multisite cohort of long-term acute respiratory distress syndrome survivors, better annual physical and quality of life status, but not psychiatric status, were associated with fewer hospitalizations and lower healthcare costs.

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